Renders tags (and objects that can be converted into tags using as.tags()) into HTML. (Generally intended to be called from web framework libraries, not directly by most users--see print.html() for higher level rendering.)

renderTags(x, singletons = character(0), indent = 0)

doRenderTags(x, indent = 0)



Tag object(s) to render


A list of singleton signatures to consider already rendered; any matching singletons will be dropped instead of rendered. (This is useful (only?) for incremental rendering.)


Initial indent level, or FALSE if no indentation should be used.


renderTags returns a list with the following variables:

  • head: An HTML() string that should be included in <head>.

  • singletons: Character vector of singleton signatures that are known after rendering.

  • dependencies: A list of resolved htmlDependency() objects.

  • html: An HTML() string that represents the main HTML that was rendered.

doRenderTags returns a simple HTML() string.


doRenderTags is intended for very low-level use; it ignores render hooks, singletons, head, and dependency handling, and simply renders the given tag objects as HTML. Please use renderTags() if x has not already handled its dependencies and render hooks.